Saturday, December 4, 2021

Afghanistan: Kunenga Joe Biden biri kwiyongera nyuma y’ifatwa rya Kabul

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Mugihe Abataliban bamaze gufata ubutegetsi, Abanyamerika bo muri Afghanistan, abari abasirikare bakuru, n’abanyapolitiki, bari kunenga Perezida Joe Biden kwihutira kuvana ingabo muri icyo gihugu. Ariko bisa n’aho ashyigikiwe na rubanda – kugeza ubu.

Hadia Essazada ararira ubwo abara ibibi yabonye ubwo Abataliban bari bageze mu rugo rw’iwabo, bakabanza gukubita se, nyuma bakica musaza we.

Bwa mbere “bakubitaga data umutarimba kuko bariho bashaka musaza wanjye mukuru” wari wararwanyije ubutegtsi bwabo mu myaka ya 1990, nk’uko Hadia yabibwiye BBC ishami rya Perse.

Bahungiye mu mujyi wo mu majyaruguru Mazar-l-Sharif ariko “hashize amezi atandatu tugarutse mu rugo rwacu, Abataliban nanone baragarutse. Ubu bwo batwara musaza wanjye muto.”

Ati: “Sinzi iminsi yari ishize ubwo umucuruzi yazaga mu rugo akabwira data ko umuhungu we yishwe.”

Abataliban bishe uyu muhungu umurambo we bawukurubana mu mihanda. Mu gihe cy’ibyumweru umuryango we wangiwe gutwara umurambo ngo uwushyingure, imbwa nizo zemerewe kuwurya.

Hadia uri mu myaka 20 kandi uba muri Amerika, avuga ko afite ubwoba bw’ibizaba iwabo muri Afghanistan mu gihe ubu Abataliban bongeye gufata ubutegetsi.

Ati: “Abataliban ntibigeze bahinduka na gato.”

Biden yijeje kubisohokamo

Abamunenga, bavuga ko umwanzuro we wo kuvana ingabo za Amerika muri iyi ntambara yari imaze imyaka 20, washyize abaturage mu kaga, kandi kandi utuma Amerika yongera kwibazwaho.

Abari hafi y’iki kibazo – Abanya-Afghanistan, abasirikare n’abanyapolitiki – kuva na mbere bakomeje gukemanga ibitekerezo bya Biden ko leta ya Kabul yarinda umutekano w’igihugu ubwayo.

Mu gihe Kabul yafashwe ku cyumweru, bamwe baribaza ko niba atari ikibazo cy’igihe gusa ngo abaturage ba Amerika bicuze icyemezo cya Biden cyo kuvanayo ingabo.

cyemezo cye cyo kuvanayo ingabo ntabwo cyatunguranye. Kuva akiri visi perezida wa Barack Obama, Biden yakomeje gushimangira ko iyo ntambara idakwiye kujyamo abasirikare benshi.

Ari senateri wa Delaware mu 2001, yatoye yemeza kohereza ingabo muri Afghanistan. Ariko mu 2009 yanze koherezayo izindi ngabo, ibyaje kwemezwa na Obama.

Ari kwiyamamariza kujya muri White House mu 2019, Biden yibukije abatora ko azaba perezida wa mbere kuva kuri Dwight Eisenhower wo mu myaka ya 1950, ufite umwana we uri mu ntambara.

Mu gitabo cye Richard Holbrooke, wari intumwa idasanzwe muri Afghanistan mu myaka ya mbere y’ubutegetsi bwa Obama, yibuka Biden amubwira ko “atakongera kohereza umuhungu we gushyira ubuzima bwe mu kaga kubera uburenganzira bw’abagore [bo muri Afghanistan]…Icyo sicyo babereye hariya”.

Ari kwiyamamariza gutegeka, Biden yabwiye CBS mu 2020 ko Amerika ikwiye kugira ingabo muri Afghanistan ari uko gusa ari izo “gutuma Abataliban na Islamic State cyangwa al-Qaeda zongera kuhashyira ibirenge”.

Nta myaka irashira. Ejo ku cyumweru Abataliban ntibahagejeje ibirenge gusa ahubwo basubiranye ubutegetsi nyuma y’igihe gito Abanyamerika n’inshuti zabo bahavuye.

Mu gihe cy’amasaha, ikibuga cy’indege mpuzamahanga cya Kabul cyahagaritse indege z’ubucuruzi kandi ingabo za leta kuri gereza nkuru ya Afghanistan zahise zimanika amaboko ku Bataliban bari bahageze.

Kuwa gatandatu byabaye ngombwa ko Biden yemeza kohereza izindi ngabo ibihumbi za Amerika “gucyura mu mahoro abakozi ba Amerika n’abandi bakozi b’inshuti” no kuvanayo neza Abanya-Afghanistan bari mu kaga kubera Abataliban.

Kuburira hakiri kare

Raporo y’ubutasi bwa Amerika yasohotse batabishaka muri uku kwezi yaburiraga ko leta ya Afghanistan ishobora gutembagazwa mu minsi itarenze 90 ingabo za Amerika zihavuye.

Donald Trump wasimbuwe na Biden, yamunenze “intege nke, ubushobozi bucye no gukora nabi”, ariko bamwe bavuga ko amasezerano yo kuhava umwaka ushize Trump ubwe yagiranye n’Abataliban nayo abifitemo uruhare.

Kuburira ingaruka zo gukura ingabo za Amerika muri Afghanistan byumvikanye mu myaka ishize.

Mu 2009, abajijwe niba kugabanya ingabo ziriyo byatanga umusaruro, Stanley McChrystal, wari komanda w’ingabo za Amerika muri Afghanistan, yarasubije ati: “Igisubizo kigufi ni hoya.”

Gufata ubutegetsi kw’Abataliban ubu birerekana ko ibyo yavugaga byari ukuri.

Gen David Petraeus, wasimbuye McChrystal, yabwiye BBC ati: “Ibintu mu by’ukuri byifashe nabi.

“Dukwiye kwisubiraho kuri uyu mwanzuro, nari mfite ubwoba ko tuzicuza none nibyo turimo. Nta cyiza kibirimo kereka Amerika n’inshuti zayo nibemera ko twakoze ikosa rikomeye”.

Husain Haqqani, ambasaderi wa Pakistan muri Amerika mu 2009, yabwiye BBC ati: “[Biden] buri gihe yaravugaga ngo ‘intambara yacu ni al-Qaeda si Abataliban’. Igihe cyose sinemeraga ibyo avuga.”

Sher Hossain Jaghori, umunya-Afghanistan wakoreye ingabo za Amerika nk’umusemuzi akanacika akaboko mu 2003.

Ubu ni umuturage wa Amerika warakajwe n’uko bavanyeyo ingabo zabo. Yabwiye BBC ko Biden “yasize abaturage ba Afghanistan mu maboko y’Abataliban.”

Ati: “Sinkizeye leta ya Amerika ukundi. Umugore wanjye n’umuhungu wanjye batoye Biden. Nari nababujije. None ubu bari kumbwira ngo nari mfite ukuri. Ntabwo bazongera gutora na rimwe.”

Gusa amakusanyabitekerezo yerekana ko Abanyamerika benshi bari bashyigikiye ko ingabo za Amerika zihava nyuma y’imyaka myinshi babyijejwe.

Ari ku butegetsi, Obama yijeje kuzivanayo. Ari kwiyamamaza, Donald Trump nawe yashimangiye ko adashaka gukomeza “intambara itarangira” – anashyiraho itariki yo gukurayo ingabo za Amerika ya 01 z’ukwa gatanu uyu mwaka.

Mu kwezi gushize, ikigereranyo kinini cy’Abanyamerika – 70% cyangwa barenga – bashyigikiye umwanzuro wa Biden wo kuvanayo ingabo, nk’uko bivugwa n’ikusanyabitekerezo rya Harris and the Chicago Council.

Ariko hari hari mbere yo kwihuta mu gusatira ubutegetsi kw’Abataliban.

Uko ibintu muri Afghanistan byahindutse – hakanavugwa kwicwa kw’abafashije Abanyamerika mu mijyi Abataliban bafashe – ubu benshi bari kugereranya kuhava kwa Amerika nk’uko bakoze i Saigon muri Vietnam mu 1975.

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