Friday, December 3, 2021

Rwanda: Ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru – abanyamakuru ubwabo babona buhagaze gute?

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Raporo z’imiryango mpuzamahanga y’abanyamakuru zishyira u Rwanda mu bihugu bya nyuma ku isi aho itangazamakuru ritisanzuye, leta y’u Rwanda yo ivuga ubwo bwisanzure buri ku gipimo cya 77% [2018], abanyamakuru bo ubwabo babivugaho iki?

Uyu ni umunsi mpuzamahanga wahariwe ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru, raporo y’uyu mwaka y’umuryango Reporters Without Borders ishyira u Rwanda mu bihugu 30 bya nyuma ku isi “aho itangazamakuru rikinizwe”.

BBC yagerageje no kuvugana n’abakuriye abanyamakuru, n’abashinzwe itangazamakuru muri leta ntibyashoboka, abanyamakuru bo bavuga ibitandukanye ku bwisanzure mu kazi kabo mu gihugu.

Aisha Rutayisire Bonaventure, amaze imyaka 17 akora itangazamakuru mu Rwanda, yakoreye ikinyamakuru Imvaho Nshya aba n’ukuriye amakuru kuri radio ya Islam, Voice of Africa, ati: “Ubwisanzure sinavuga ngo burahari cyangwa ntibuhari”.

Yongeraho ati: “…umunyamakuru ubwe ni we ureba akavuga ati ‘iki ningikora gishobora kunkoraho cyangwa nticyankoraho’, umuntu agahora asa nk’uwikanga.

“Nta muntu ukubwira ngo iyi nkuru ntuyikore cyangwa yikore, wowe ubwawe wumva wikanga ukavuga uti ‘ibi ntibigiye kunkoraho'”.

Aisha Rutayisire avuga ko nubwo we ku giti cye nta wuramubuza gukora inkuru runaka ariko azi abo byabayeho bagiye gukora inkuru bakabuzwa ko zitambuka cyangwa ubwabo bakibuza kuzitambutsa.

Ati: “Mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi ntabwo haba hari ubwisanzure mu gihe hari abatekereza bati: ‘ninkora iyi nkuru ishobora kunkoraho'”.

Emma Marie Umurerwa amaze imyaka 10 mu itangazamakuru ryandika kuri Internet, nyuma yo gukorera abandi ubu hashize umwaka urenga ashinze ikinyamakuru cye IribaNews, we avuga ko “ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru mbona buhari ndetse cyane”.

Ati: “Ahubwo mbona bamwe muri twe tubukoresha nabi, tugashaka kwigana ubwisanzure bwo mu bindi bihugu kandi buri gihugu gifite umwihariko wacyo mu itangazamakuru bigendanye n’amateka y’icyo gihugu.”

Yongeraho ati: “Ntiwafata ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru ryo mu Bufaransa cyangwa muri Amerika ngo ushake kubugereranya n’ubwo mu Rwanda, ntabwo duhuje amateka.”

We avuga ko mu Rwanda hari ibinyamakuru/abanyamakuru bashaka kubyaza ubwisanzure inyungu nyinshi bakirengagiza amahame y’umwuga w’itangazamakuru.

Ati: “Kuri YouTube na social media ubona uko abantu bakoresha ubwisanzure amahame y’umwuga w’itangazamakuru bayashyira ku ruhande, bwa bwisanzure bakabukoresha nabi.”

‘Abashimagiza leta ubwisanzure barabufite 1,000%’

Dieudonné Niyonsenga uzwi nka Cyuma Hassan muri uyu mwaka yafunguwe amaze amezi 11 afunzwe akaba umwere ku byaha birimo; ‘gukoza isoni abayobozi, gusagarira abashinzwe imirimo rusange y’igihugu, no gutambamira ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’imirimo yategetswe’, yafashwe mu kwezi kwa kane 2020 yagiye gukora inkuru.

Yinjiye mu itangazamakuru mu 2014 ahereye mu kigo cya leta cy’itangazamakuru, RBA, ati: “Aho ubwisanzure nta kibazo nabubonagamo kuko guhamagara mayor aguha amakuru nta kibazo, nta wakubuza kugera ku nkuru.

“Ariko maze guhindura nkajya kwikorera nibwo nabonye ko ubwisanzure ntabuhari, ariko uwari kumbaza nkiri muri leta nari kuvuga ko buhari kuko nta muntu wigeze ambangamira kuri ‘terrain’, nahamaze imyaka ibiri irengaho.”

Cyuma ubu ufite Chanel ya YouTube yitwa Ishema TV, avuga ko mu itangazamakuru ryigenga ku yindi radio yakozeho ariho yatangiye kubona abategetsi babuza gutangaza inkuru runaka ngo “iyo nkuru iragaragaza isura y’igihugu nabi”, avuga ko ibi ubwe byamubayeho.

Ati: “Nongeye kubona ikibazo cy’ubwisanzure ntangiye kwikorera kuko bwo iyo dukoze inkuru hari igihe inzego, abantu ku giti cyabo, abo bayobozi, baba batabishaka. Rero urabona ko ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda ntabwo, nta n’ubuhari.”

Avuga ko ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru “buri ku bantu bakora inkuru zo gushimagiza leta, bakorera leta. Abo bo ubwisanzure barabufite 1,000%, naho abakora ku giti cyabo bashaka gukora inkuru zicukumbuye abo nta bwisanzure babona.”

Akimana Latifat, yakoreye Radio na TV Rwanda kuva bikiri igitangazamakuru kimwe mu gihugu, n’ubu niho agikora. Mu kwezi kwa 10 azuzuza imyaka 25 muri uyu mwuga, avuga ko abona hari impinduka mu bwisanzure.

Ati: “Ndebye igihe ninjiragamo n’ubu uko rimeze njye mba mbona harimo kwisanzura ku buryo bugaragara. Nshingira kuba ubu hari inkuru ntinyuka gukora icyo gihe mu 1996 ubwo natangiraga itangazamakuru tutashoboraga gukora.”

Yongeraho ati: “Naguha urugero, vuba aha imfungwa zitoroka muri gereza ya Kirehe zikaraswa, iriya nkuru ubundi iyo biba kera ntabwo Radio Rwanda yari kuyikora. Ariko iyo nkuru nayiganiriyeho na ‘Chief editor’ ngiye kubona mbona Radio Rwanda irayikoze.”

Akimana umaze guhabwa ibihembo byinshi by’itangazamakuru bitangwa mu Rwanda, avuga ko we abona ubwisanzure buhari ariko hakiri ibyo gukora ngo bugerweho bisesuye.Ati: “Ntiwavuga ngo twageze iyo tujya twarisanzuye, kuko kugeza ubu ubona ko abantu bavuga ko mu bijyanye na Sports [ari ho] abantu bisanzuye 100% pe! [ariko] hari izindi nkuru zijyanye no kuba wanenga nyabyo politki runaka tuvuge nk’ibi byo kwirinda Covid, ubona ko utapfa kuvuga ngo iyi ngamba yafashwe ngo uyibazeho.”

Akimana avuga kandi ko ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda bwanareberwa no mu mibereho n’imico isanzwe y’Abanyarwanda.

Ati: “Niba sosiyete y’Abanyarwanda itisanzuye 100% ntabwo uzambwira ngo umunyamakuru na we azisanzura 100%, ariko ntiwahita uvuga ngo abantu ntibisanzuye. Wenda no muri kamere yabo ni ko basanzwe bameze, ntabwo imico y’Abanyarwanda ari kimwe n’iyo mu bindi bihugu abantu bisanzura uko bashatse mu bibazo ibyo ari byo byose.”

‘Jya kwaka servisi ba banyamakuru wahaye amakuru’

Juventine Muragijemariya amaze imyaka umunani mu itangazamakuru rya radio n’ibinyamakuru byo kuri Internet byose byigenga, avuga ko atangira mu 2013 kuri Radio yigenga ikorera mu majyaruguru umunyamakuru yakoraga atisanzuye kuko “habagaho guhangana n’abayobozi batubuza inkuru runaka”.

Ati: “Uko iminsi yagiye ishira ubona ko guhangana bisa nk’aho biri kugabanuka, noneho wajya mu nkuru ntugire wa muntu ukugenda iruhande avuga ngo ‘ugiye kuvugana ibiki n’abaturage?’.

Ntabwo mvuze ko n’ubu bidahari, urugero n’ubu inkuru maze gukora byabaye ku muturage, yari yatugejejeho ikibazo agiye gusaba servisi mu buyobozi bati ‘genda ujye kuyaka ba banyamakuru wahaye amakuru’, urumva ni ikibazo ku muturage ariko no kuri njyewe muri bwa bwisanzure bwanjye bwo gutara inkuru.”

Muragijemariya avuga ko ibi abona bikorwa n’abantu ku giti cyabo baba bashaka kugira ibyo bahisha mu byo batujuje mu nshingano zabo.

Avuga kandi ko hari ubwo abanyamakuru bibuza gutara inkuru runaka kuko rimwe na rimwe hari izo babona zikorwa hashira akanya ziri kuri Internet zikavanwaho.

Ati: “…Ntabwo nzi ngo ikurwaho na nde, [ariko] ni kimwe mu bituma wavuga uti ‘bwa bwisanzure ubanza nyamara hari aho bujya bubura’, nubwo utabigereranya no mu myaka yashize.”

source :bbc gahuzamiryango

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